It takes its name from the city of Schengen in Luxembourg, where the agreement was signed in 1985. It entered into force in 1995. The Schengen Agreement also contained measures to streamline extradition between participating countries, but these have been integrated into the European arrest warrant system.  The main objective of the Schengen rules is to abolish border controls between participating countries in order to speed up the movement of people and goods. In this case, there are strict rules for external border controls and standard rules for obtaining a short-term visa, called a « Schengen visa ». Once someone (e.g. from India) holds a Schengen visa, he or she can travel freely within the Schengen area for three months. Those who do not need a visa (for example. B Americans) may also travel within the Schengen area during this period. The same applies to a third-country national legally living in the Schengen area (e.g. B a Turkish citizen living in Berlin) and holding a residence permit or long-stay visa.
The November 13 attacks in Paris, which killed 130 people, sparked an urgent change of mentality in the Schengen agreements. Third-country nationals who are family members of EU, EEA, Swiss and British nationals exercising their right to free movement and who hold a valid residence card of a family member of a Union citizen issued by their EEA host country may travel to another EU/EEA Member State or Switzerland without a visa for a short stay of up to 90 days in each Member State.     « Family member » means a spouse/life partner, his or her children under the age of 21 or dependent children (including children of the spouse/life partner) and dependent parents (including children of the spouse/partner).  It indicated that the December 31 deadline for the conclusion of an agreement between the United Kingdom and the EU was now almost impossible to meet. After the entry into force of ETIAS, UK citizens visiting Europe must apply for an ETIAS visa waiver online before their departure. The ETIAS visa waiver for UK citizens is valid for a period of three years and allows unlimited entry into the region. One EU member state – Ireland – has negotiated Schengen waivers and continues to carry out border controls with other EU member states, while being part of the common travel area with the UK (a former EU member). The remaining four EU Member States – Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania – are required to join the Schengen area. However, before fully implementing the Schengen rules, each state must have its will assessed in four areas: air borders, visas, police cooperation and the protection of personal data. This evaluation process includes a questionnaire and visits by EU experts to selected institutions and jobs in the country to be assessed.
 Svalbard is part of Norway and has a special status under international law. It is not part of the Schengen area. For Svalbard, there is no entry, stay or work, but it is difficult to visit Svalbard without travelling within the Schengen area, although there are charter flights from Russia. Since 2011, the Norwegian government has imposed systematic checks on people who wish to enter and leave Svalbard and require a passport or identity card for non-Norwegian nationals. . . .